References from the Medical Literature
- Brousseau, ME; Schaefer,EJ. Diet and coronary heart disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2:487-93, 2000.
- Review of dietary intervention trials using coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality as endpoints. Restriction or replacement of saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats, especially omega-3 fatty acids reduces risk. [abstract]
- Clarke, R; Frost, C; Collins, R; Appleby, P; Peto, R. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ. 314:112-117, 1997.
- Meta-analysis of intervention studies to measure the effect of dietary fatty acids and cholesterol on total , low density and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changing the type of dietary fat, but not the amount produces the greatest effect. [abstract]
- de Lorgeril, M; Salen, P; Martin, JL; Monjaud I, Boucher P, Mamelle N. Mediterranean dietary pattern in a randomized trial: prolonged survival and possible reduced cancer rate. Arch Intern Med. 158:1181-7, 1998.
- Randomized controlled trial shows that a Mediterranean diet decreases risk of all-cause mortality, non-fatal cancer and myocardial infarct. [abstract]
- Fraser, GE. Nut consumption, lipids and risk of a coronary event. Clinical Cardiology. 22 (7Suppl):III 11-5, 1999.
- Review of the effect of consumption of nuts on the risk of coronary heart disease shows that eating nuts frequently decreases risk of coronary heart disease. [abstract]
- Hooper, L; Summerbell, CD; Higgins, JPT; Thompson, RL; Clements, G; Capps, N; Davey Smith, G; Riemersma, RA; Ebrahim,S. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3, 2001.
- The findings of this systematic review suggest a small but important reduction in cardiovascular risk in studies where dietary saturated fat is reduced or replaced by unsaturates for longer than two years. [abstract]
- Howell, WH; Mcnamara, DJ; Tosca, MA; Smith, BT; Gaines, JA. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 65:1747-64, 1997.
- Meta-analysis of the effects of changes in dietary fat and cholesterol on serum lipid levels. Conclusions support dietary fat intake of 30% of energy with less than 10% from saturated fat. [abstract]
- Kromhout, D. Fatty acids, antioxidants, and coronary heart disease from an epidemiological perspective. Lipids. 34 Suppl:S27-31, 1999.
- Review of epidemiological studies suggests that consumption of a diet low in saturated fat and rich in antioxidants combined with no smoking is associated with low coronary heart disease risk. [abstract]
- Kromhout, D. Diet and cardiovascular diseases. J Nutr Health Aging. 5:144-9, 2001.
- Review of studies showing that saturated and trans fatty acids have a LDL cholesterol elevating effect and unsaturated fatty acids have a lowering effect. Omega 3 unsaturated fatty acids have a protective effect on coronary heart disease independent of cholesterol. [abstract]
- Parks, EJ. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on triglyceride metabolism in humans. J Nutr. 131:2772S-2774S, 2001.
- Review of studies of carbohydrate induced hypertriglyceridemia in individuals consuming greater than 55% of energy from carbohydrates. [abstract]
- Valenzuela, A; Morgado, N. Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry. Biol Res. 32:273-87, 1999.
- Review of dietary trans fatty acids show that they increase LDL and reduce HDL, increasing cardiovascular disease risk. [abstract]