Objectives:

1. Given a biological molecule, be able to name the functional groups.
2. Be able to tell if a biological molecule is oxidized or reduced.
3. What are the substrates for a reaction that forms an ester, a thioester, an amide, a phosphoester, and an acid anhydride? What are the products of a reaction that hydrolyzes an ester, a thioester, an amide, a phosphoester, and an acid anhydride?
4. Be able to recognize a aldose and ketose.
5. Be able to recognize a triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose, heptose.
6. Be able to identify an asymmetric carbon atom.
7. Given two compounds, be able to tell whether they are stereoisomers or epimers.
8. What is the difference between alpha- and beta-D-glucopyranose?
9. Compare glucuronate, gluconate, and sorbitol with glucose.
10. Be able to identify alpha-O-, alpha-N-, beta-O- and beta-N-glycosidic bonds.
11. Be able to identify the structure of a fatty acid. Be able to differentiate between Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, a-Linolenic acid and Arachidonic acid.
12. Be able to use delta-numeric and omega nomenclature to identify the position of double bonds.
13. Why is the length and saturation of the fatty acids in phospholipids important?
14. Recognize a mono, di and triacylglycerol.
15. Be able to recognize the names of and the structures of the phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lecithin.
16. What does the lyso in lysolecithin indicate?
17. Be able to tell the difference between sphingomyelin and lecithin.

18. Be able to recognize cholesterol and any compound derived from it.
19. Be able to identify the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of the cholesterol molecule and bile acids.
20. Be able to identify the alpha amino and the alpha carboxyl for any alpha-amino acid.
21. Be able to recognize the structure of a purine and a pyrimidine base. Be able to identify the structure of adenine, guanine or thymine.
22. Be able to identify the structures for adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate and to state whether they are nucleosides or nucleotides.
23. Define a free radical.
24. Be able to recognize the structure and name three of the free radicals mentioned in chapter 5.
25. Concerning Di Abetes, what two compounds were raised in her blood that caused acidosis? Where were they made?
26. Which ketone body is not measured by the nitroprusside reaction and why isn't it measured?
27. Concerning Di Abetes, given a basic solution containing adenosine monophosphate, glucose, fructose and galactose, which of these compounds will undergo a positive reducing sugar test? Why?
28. Concerning Di Abetes, how does the glucose oxidase test work and why is the test specific? What are the products of the enzyme reaction?
29. Concerning Lotta Topaigne, Given that the pKa for uric acid is 5.7 and that uric acid is 20 times less soluble than sodium urate, explain which is more likely to precipitate in the toe (pH = 7.4) and which is more likely to precipitate in the kidney tubule (pH = 6.3).

Keywords:

acetoacetate , acetone, acid anhydride, adenine, alcohol, aldehyde group, aldose, amide, amino group, amphipathic, amylopectin, anomeric carbon atom, arachidonic acid, carboxylic acid, ceramide, cholesterol, cis-configuration, cytosine, deoxyribose, disaccharide, disulfide, epimers, ester, ether, fatty acids, fructose, galactose, gluconate, glucose, glucuronate, glycogen, glycosidic bonds, glycosyl bonds, guanine, heptose, hexose, hydroxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, b-hydroxybutyrate , ketone, ketoses, lactose, lecithin, linolenic acid, lysolecithin, monosaccharides, monounsaturated, N-glycosidic bonds, nitric oxide, oleic acid, oligosaccharides, omega-carbon, palmitic acid, pentose, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphoester, polyunsaturated fatty acid, purine bases, pyrimidine bases, quaternary amine, ribose, sorbitol, sphingomyelin, stereoisomers, stearic acid, sulfhydryl group, superoxide radical, tetrose, thioester, thymine, triose, unsaturated fatty acid, uracil.

Assignments:

Understand the meaning of the key words in the context of Chapter 5.

Examine Questions (Q:)and Answers(A:) in Chapter 5.

Work Review Questions 1-4, but not 5, at the end of the Chapter 5. Note that the answers to these Review questions are in the Appendix.

Work the Practice Questions for Chapter 5 Objectives

Other Help:

Asymmetric Carbon, Sterioisomer, Epimer

AMP, ADP, ATP, Nucleosides or Nucleotides

Lysolecithin

Solubility of uric acid and sodium urate in blood and urine