Objectives:

1. What is the pathway for the conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA in the cytosol in preparation for fatty acid synthesis?
2. Be able to write the equation for the control step in fatty acid synthesis. What is the name of the enzyme and how is this enzyme step controlled?
3. What are the substrates and products of the fatty acid synthase complex?
4. What do acyl carrier protein and CoA have in common?
5. What prevents the fatty acids made by fatty acid synthesis from undergoing B-oxidation?
6. Where does the elongation of most fatty acids take place?
7. Where does the desaturation of fatty acids take place in humans?
8. What are the essential fatty acids and why are they essential?
9. Starting with an intermediate in glycolysis and acyl CoA, be able to name the intermediates in the synthesis of triacylglycerols in liver and adipose tissue.
10. During fatty acid mobilization, glycerol is not used by adipose tissue but is used by the liver for gluconeogenesis. Why?
11. How does the insulin/glucagon ratio stimulate the storage of triacylglycerol in adipose tissue following a high carbohydrate meal?
12. Be able to list the sequence of events from the time epinephrine binds a receptor on the surface of an adipose cell until acetyl CoA is made in muscle or liver. Don't forget the key enzyme that controls the process.
13. Be able to name 4 glycerophospholipids found in cell membranes.
14. By this time, you know how to make phosphatidic acid from glucose. How would you make phosphatidylcholine from phosphocholine (head group) and phosphatidic acid?
15. How would you make phosphatidylinositol from inositol and phosphatidic acid?
16. In the synthesis of membrane lipids, what is the function of SAM?

17. What are the functions of phospholipase A1, Phospholipase A2, and Phospholipase C? Which one would release arachidonic acid? Which one would release diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate?
18. Concerning Percy Veere who is eating too much candy: Can he produce fat from a low fat, high carbohydrate diet? How about a high protein, low fat diet?
19. Concerning Colleen Lakker: What was the cause of respiratory distress syndrome of this premature infant? What specific compounds are missing? Are any derivatives of phosphatidic acid?
20. Concerning Colleen Lakker who suffers from respiratory distress syndrome: Explain her lactic acidosis using what you have learned in previous chapters. Use the terms cytochrome oxidase, electron transport chain, NADH, Acetyl CoA, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP level, phosphofructokinase, anaerobic glycolysis, and lactate in your answer.

Keywords:

acetyl CoA, acetyl CoA carboxylase, activated methyl group, acyl carrier protein (ACP), albumin, AMP dependent protein kinase, ATP, biotin, cAMP, cAMP cascade, carnitine: palmitoyltransferase-I, cholesterol, choline, citrate, citrate lyase, citrate synthase, CO2, diacylglycerol, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, endothelial lipase, epinephrine, essential fatty acids, ethanolamine, fatty acids, fatty acyl CoA, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, glucagon, glucose, glut-4 transporters, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate, glycolysis, glycerol, glycerol-3-phosphate, hormone sensitive lipase, inositol, insulin-stimulated phosphatase, lecithin, linoleic, linolenic, lipoprotein lipase, lung surfactant, malonyl CoA, monoacylglycerol phosphate, NADPH, oxaloacetate, palmitate, palmitoyl CoA, pantothenic acid, phosphatase, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphorylation, protein kinase A, pyruvate, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, S-adenosylmethionine, SAM, serine, surfactant proteins, thioester bond, triacylglycerol.

Assignments:

Understand the meaning of the key words in the context of Chapter 33.

Examine Questions (Q:) and Answers (A:) in Chapter 33.

Work Review Questions 1, 3, and 5 but not 2, and 4 at the end of the Chapter 33

Work the Practice Questions for Chapter 33 Objectives

Other Help:

No Other Help for Chapter 33.