CHAPTER 22

Generation of ATP from Glucose: Glycolysis

 

OBJECTIVES:

1. To understand or describe any pathway, start with the following paradigm for aerobic glycolysis.

Names:
Functions:
Substrates:
Product:
Control Enzymes:
Regulation:
Compartment(s):
Tissues of interest:

2. What is the first enzyme in glycolysis in muscle? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible? What is the isozyme of this enzyme in liver?

3. What is the enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to fructose-6-phosphate in glycolysis in liver? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible?

4. What is the enzyme that produces NADH from a triose phosphate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible?

5. What is the enzyme that produces ATP from 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate- in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? Is this substrate level phosphorylation?

6. What is the enzyme that produces ATP from phosphoenolpyruvate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible?

7. Is glycolysis reversible?

8. What is the function of the malate-aspartate shuttle? Name the substrates, products and enzymes of the reactions necessary to transfer the electrons from the product of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate reaction to the substrate for the NADH Dehydrogenase in the electron transport chain.

9. What are the substrates and products of the LDH reaction? Is the reaction readily reversible?

10. What are the two major factors determining whether a cell oxidizes glucose by aerobic glycolysis or by anaerobic glycolysis?

11. Compare the energy produced from glucose during anaerobic glycolysis with the energy produced in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate during aerobic glycolysis. How much energy is produced if glucose is completely oxidized to CO2?

13. What is lacticacidosis?

14. Explain the Cori Cycle!

15. Which of the glycolytic enzymes are activated when the cellular ratio of ATP to ADP or ATP to AMP is decreased?

16. What reaction is catalyzed by adenylate kinase.

17. Why is AMP concentration a better measure of energy utilization than ATP concentration?

18. In liver, high glucagon and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. High protein kinase A activity will phosphorylate the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase. How will this effect the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 and the rate of glycolysis?

19. In cardiac muscle, high adrenalin and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. High protein kinase A activity will phosphorylate the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase. How will this effect the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 and the rate of glycolysis?

20. In liver, high glucagon and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. How will this effect the activity of pyruvate kinase and the rate of glycolysis?

21. Concerning Lopa Fusor: Explain why hemorrhage, anemia, COPD, or any combination of these three might result in lactic acidosis.

22. Concerning Otto Shape, compare his metabolism when walking slowly with sprinting. Consider the following:

Total ATP used by muscle per second
Rate of ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
The rate of pyruvate oxidized by pyruvate dehydrogenase and the TCA cycle. Why?
The rate of glycolysis. Why?
The rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Why?

23. Concerning Ivan Applebod: Streptococcus mutans needs energy for growth and cell division. As a result, they also cause dental caries. What is the relationship between the production of energy and dental caries?

24. Understand the meaning of each of the keywords.

KEYWORDS:

adenylate kinase, aerobic glycolysis, ADP, allosteric activation, AMP, anaerobic glycolysis, aspartate, B-cells, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, blood glucose, blood lactate, Cori cycle, energy, fructose, fructose-6-P, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, glucagon, glucokinase, glucose, gluconeogenesis, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycolysis, glycolytic pathway, hexokinase, hydroxyapatite, insulin, irreversible, lactate dehydrogenase, lactic acid, liver, malate, mitochondria, muscle, NAD+, NADH, oxaloacetate, oxygen, pH, 2-phosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphofructokinase-1, phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase, protein kinase A, pyruvate, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, shuttle, substrate level phosphorylation

ASSIGNMENTS:

Examine questions in chapter 22.

Work questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 at the end of Chapter 22.

Understand the meaning of the key words in the context of Chapter 22

Practice Questions for Chapter 22 Objectives

Other Help

Third Edition Figure Map

Figure of Phosphofructokinase-2/Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase

REFERENCE: Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition, 2004, Williams and Wilkins (ISBN: 0-7817-2145-8) by Colleen M. Smith PhD, Allan D. Marks MD, and Michael A. Lieberman PhD

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