Questions:

1. All of the following statements about aerobic glycolysis are true except
  1. The control enzyme is phosphofructokinase-1 which converts fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
  2. The pathway is activated allosterically by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP
  3. The pathway is in the cytosol of every cell
  4. The pathway produces lactate and NAD+
  5. The pathway begins with glucokinase or hexokinase
2. The first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway in muscle
  1. Is glucokinase
  2. Uses ATP and glucose-6-phosphate as substrates
  3. Produces glucose-1-phosphate and ADP
  4. Is reversible
  5. Is an isozyme of glucokinase found in the liver
3. The enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to fructose-6-phosphate in glycolysis
  1. Is called phosphofructokinase-2
  2. Is reversible
  3. Produces fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as a product
  4. Is the control enzyme for glycolysis
  5. Produces ATP as a product
4. The enzyme that produces NADH from a triose phosphate in the glycolytic pathway
  1. Uses NAD+ and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as substrates
  2. Produces 3-phosphoglycerate and NADH
  3. Is reversible
  4. Is called 3-phosphoglycerate kinase
  5. Uses FADH2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate as substrates
5. The first substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis
  1. Produces 3-phosphoglycerate as a product
  2. Produces ADP from AMP
  3. Is called glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  4. Is called phosphofructokinase
  5. Is irreversible
6. The enzyme that catalyzes the second substrate level phosphorylation of glycolysis
  1. Is called phosphoglyceromutase
  2. Produces lactate as a product
  3. Uses phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate
  4. Is found in the mitochondria
  5. Is reversible
7. Which is the best statement
  1. The glycolytic pathway is reversible
  2. The glycolytic pathway is irreversible
8. Which of the following statements about the malate-aspartate shuttle is FALSE
  1. The shuttle is used to transfer electrons from cytosolic NADH to mitochondrial NADH
  2. Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate by NADH in the cytosol
  3. Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction NAD+ by malate in the mitochondria
  4. Oxaloacetate carries the electrons from NADH into the mitochondria
  5. The electrons are transferred to the electron transport chain by NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)
9. Which of the following statements about the LDH reaction is FALSE.

  1. The enzyme converts pyruvate to lactate
  2. The enzyme converts NADH to NAD+
  3. The reaction is reversible
  4. It is the last enzyme reaction in anaerobic glycolysis
  5. The enzyme is found in liver but not in muscle
10. The two major factors determining whether a cell oxidizes glucose by aerobic glycolysis or by anaerobic glycolysis are
  1. FADH2 and the number of mitochondria
  2. NADH and the ATP/ADP ratio
  3. Ca++ and AMP
  4. Oxygen pressure and the number of mitochondria
  5. Ca++ and NADH
11. When glucose is converted to lactate by anaerobic glycolysis, the equivalent of ________ ATPs are derived.  When glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 by glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and the TCA cycle, the equivalent of _______ ATPs are derived.
  1. 7;  20
  2. 2;  32
  3. 7;  32
  4. 2;  12
  5. 7;  25
12. When one molecule of glucose is oxidized to 2 molecules of lactate during anaerobic glycolysis, all of the following are correct EXCEPT?
  1. One molecule of ATP is used by the phosphofructokinase-1 reaction
  2. One molecule of ATP is used by either the glucokinase or hexokinase reaction
  3. Two molecules of ATP are produced by the phosphoglycerate kinase reaction
  4. Two molecules of ATP are produced by the pyruvate kinase reaction
  5. Two molecules of NADH are produced by the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction
13. All of the following help to explain some cases of Lactic Acidosis EXCEPT
  1. poor oxygen uptake by blood in the lungs
  2. inhibition of phosphofructokinase-1
  3. not enough oxygen to satisfy the needs of oxidative phosphorylation
  4. congenital deficiency of liver lactate dehydrogenase
  5. inhibition of the electron transport chain
14. All of the following are part of the Cori Cycle EXCEPT 

  1. Lactate is the result of anaerobic glycolysis in a number of tissues
  2. Lactate travels to the liver
  3. Lactate is converted to glucose in the liver
  4. ATP is produced by the conversion of lactate to glucose
  5. Glucose travels from liver to other tissues
15. The ATP/AMP ratio has a major affect upon the rate of ATP production by glycolysis.  ATP and AMP bind to allosteric sites on
  1. Hexokinase
  2. Glucokinase
  3. Phosphofructokinase-1
  4. Phosphofructokinase-2
  5. 3-phosphoglycerate kinase
16. Which of the following statements about adenylate kinase is FALSE
  1. Can convert ADP into ATP and AMP
  2. Can convert AMP into ADP using phosphate transfer from ATP
  3. Is also called myokinase
  4. Can be classified as a nucleoside monophosphate kinase
  5. Can be classified as a nucleoside diphosphokinase
17. When cells use energy, the greatest change is seen in the concentration of
  1. creatine phosphate
  2. ATP
  3. ADP
  4. AMP
  5. Pi
18. In the liver, all of the following are part of the pathway whereby increased glucagon causes a decrease in the glycolytic pathway EXCEPT
  1. Increased binding of GTP to G-protein
  2. Activation of the cAMP cascade
  3. Increased phosphorylation of enzymes by protein kinase A
  4. Activation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and inhibition of phosphofructokinase-2
  5. Increased binding of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to phosphofructokinase-1
19. In the muscle, all of the following are part of the pathway whereby increased epinephrine causes an increase in the glycolytic pathway EXCEPT
  1. Increased binding of GTP to G-protein
  2. Activation of the cAMP cascade
  3. Increased phosphorylation of enzymes by protein kinase A
  4. Activation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and inhibition of phosphofructokinase-2
  5. Increased binding of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to phosphofructokinase-1
20. In liver, high glucagon will inhibit glycolysis at more than one enzyme.  When entering the fasting state, the insulin to glucagon ratio drops and all of the following occur EXCEPT
  1. Protein kinase A will phosphorylate pyruvate kinase
  2. The pyruvate kinase step will be activated
  3. Protein kinase A will phosphorylate phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase
  4. The concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate will decrease
  5. The liver will not be able to synthesize pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate
21. Your patient has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease so not enough oxygen is reaching her tissues.  You would expect all of the following EXCEPT
  1. The electron transport chain would be inhibited
  2. Glycolysis would be activated by a low ATP/ADP ration
  3. Concentrations of NADH and pyruvate would be lower than normal
  4. Less than normal amounts of H+ would be pumped out of the mitochondria
  5. Less than normal amounts of ATP would be synthesized by ATP synthase
22. Your patient has been walking and begins to sprint.  All of the following changes would occur EXCEPT
  1. ATP hydrolysis by muscle and ATP synthesis by ATP synthase would increase
  2. ADP concentrations would increase and glycolysis would be activated
  3. Pyruvate oxidation by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would increase
  4. Acetyl CoA oxidation by the TCA cycle would decrease
  5. Concentrations of NADH, pyruvate, and lactate in the cytosol would increase
23. All of the following are part of the explanation of dental caries by oral bacteria EXCEPT
  1. These bacteria use anaerobic glycolysis to produce much of their energy
  2. Anaerobic glycolysis produces a lot of lactate
  3. Lactate has a pKa of 10
  4. Below a pH of 5.5, decalcification of tooth enamel and dentine occurs
  5. Hydroxyapatite like crystals dissolve in acid solution
24. Concerning the following reaction, all of the following answers are true EXCEPT?
2ADP = AMP + ATP
  1. The enzyme is found in muscle tissue and is called myokinase
  2. The enzyme is found in many cell types and is called adenylate kinase
  3. The reaction is an example of substrate level phosphorylation
  4. The reaction can produce ATP for muscle contraction during severe muscle contraction
  5. The enzyme can use ATP to convert AMP to ADP when the muscle is relaxed
25. All of the following are true EXCEPT? When one begins to exercise, the increased epinephrine will react with Β-receptors on muscle cells and
  1. Activate the cAMP cascade
  2. Inactivate Protein kinase A
  3. Activate Phosphofructokinase-2 by phosphorylation
  4. Increase the concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
  5. Activate phosphofructokinase-1
26. All of the following are true EXCEPT? In the fasting state and in the liver
  1. Glucagon will activate the cAMP cascade
  2. Protein kinase A will be activated
  3. Phosphofructokinase-1 will be phosphorylated
  4. Pyruvate kinase will be phosphorylated
  5. Phosphoenolpyruvate will not be converted to pyruvate
27. Your patient has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease so not enough oxygen is reaching her tissues. You would expect all of the following EXCEPT?
  1. A low blood pH due in part to high blood CO2
  2. A low blood pH due in part to high serum lactate
  3. A partial inhibition of the electron transport chain due lack of O2
  4. A partial inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis due to high ATP
  5. A partial inhibition of the TCA cycle due to high NADH
28. Your patient has been walking and begins to sprint. All of the following changes would occur in muscle cells EXCEPT
  1. The ATP concentrations would decrease and the ADP and AMP concentrations would increase
  2. The rate of oxidation of NADH in the mitochondria by the electron transport chain would increase
  3. The rate of phosphofructokinase-1 reaction would increase due to increased ATP
  4. The rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate would increase
  5. The rate of conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA would increase
29. Which of these enzyme reactions in glycolysis is reversible?
  1. Hexokinase
  2. Glucokinase
  3. 3-phosphoglycerate kinase
  4. Phosphofructokinase-1
  5. Pyruvate kinase

Answers:

1. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 1: To understand or describe any pathway, start with the following paradigm for aerobic glycolysis: Names: Functions: Substrates: Product: Control Enzymes: Regulation: Compartment(s): Tissues of interest: Back to question 1.
2. Answer: E. Chapter 22 , Objective 2: What is the first enzyme in glycolysis in muscle? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible? What is the isozyme of this enzyme in liver? Back to question 2.
3. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 3: What is the enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to fructose-6-phosphate in glycolysis in liver? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible? Back to question 3.
4. Answer: C. Chapter 22 , Objective 4: What is the enzyme that produces NADH from a triose phosphate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? Back to question 4.
5. Answer: A. Chapter 22 , Objective 5: What is the enzyme that produces ATP from 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate- in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? Is this substrate level phosphorylation? Back to question 5.
6. Answer: C. Chapter 22 , Objective 6: What is the enzyme that produces ATP from phosphoenolpyruvate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? Back to question 6.
7. Answer: B. Chapter 22 , Objective 7: Is glycolysis reversible? Back to question 7.
8. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 8: What is the function of the malate-aspartate shuttle? Name the substrates, products and enzymes of the reactions necessary to transfer the electrons from the product of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate reaction to the substrate for the NADH Dehydrogenase in the electron transport chain. Back to question 8.
9. Answer: E. Chapter 22 , Objective 9: What are the substrates and products of the LDH reaction? Is the reaction readily reversible? Back to question 9.
10. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 10: What are the two major factors determining whether a cell oxidizes glucose by aerobic glycolysis or by anaerobic glycolysis? Back to question 10.
11. Answer: B. Chapter 22 , Objective 12: Compare the energy produced from glucose during anaerobic glycolysis with the energy produced if glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 by glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and the TCA cycle? Back to question 11.
12. Answer: E. Chapter 22, Objective 11: Compare the energy produced from glucose during anaerobic glycolysis with the energy produced in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate during aerobic glycolysis. Back to question 12.
13. Answer: B. Chapter 22, Objective 13: What is lacticacidosis? Back to question 13.
14. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 14: Explain the Cori Cycle! Back to question 14.
15. Answer: C. Chapter 22 , Objective 15: Which of the glycolytic enzymes are activated when the cellular ratio of ATP to ADP or ATP to AMP is decreased? Back to question 15.
16. Answer: E. Chapter 22 , Objective 16: What reaction is catalyzed by adenylate kinase. Back to question 16.
17. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 17: Why is AMP concentration a better measure of energy utilization than ATP concentration? Back to question 17.
18. Answer: E. Chapter 22 , Objective 18: In liver, high glucagon and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. High protein kinase A activity will phosphorylate the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase. How will this effect the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 and the rate of glycolysis? Back to question 18.
19. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 19: In cardiac muscle, high adrenalin and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. High protein kinase A activity will phosphorylate the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase. How will this effect the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 and the rate of glycolysis? Back to question 19.
20. Answer: B. Chapter 22 , Objectives 20: In liver, high glucagon and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. How will this effect the activity of pyruvate kinase and the rate of glycolysis? Back to question 20.
21. Answer: C. Chapter 22 , Objectives 21: Concerning Lopa Fusor: Explain why hemorrhage, anemia, COPD, or any combination of these three might result in lactic acidosis. Back to question 21.
22. Answer: D. Chapter 22 , Objective 22: Concerning Otto Shape, compare his metabolism when walking slowly with sprinting. Consider the following: Total ATP used by muscle per second: Rate of ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation: The rate of pyruvate oxidized by pyruvate dehydrogenase and the TCA cycle. Why?: The rate of glycolysis. Why?: The rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Why? Back to question 22.
23. Answer: C. Chapter 22, Objective 23: Concerning Ivan Applebod: Streptococcus mutans needs energy for growth and cell division. As a result, they also cause dental caries. What is the relationship between the production of energy and dental caries? Back to question 23.
24. Answer: C. Chapter 22, Objective 16: What reaction is catalyzed by adenylate kinase? Back to question 24.
25. Answer: B. Chapter 22, Objective 19: In cardiac muscle, high adrenalin and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. High protein kinase A activity will phosphorylate the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphospahtase. How will this effect the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 and the rate of glycolysis? Back to question 25.
26. Answer: C. Chapter 22, Objective 20: In liver, high glucagon and high cAMP will activate protein kinase A. How will this effect the activity of pyruvate kinase and the rate of glycolysis? Back to question 26.
27. Answer: D. Chapter 22, Objective 21: Concerning Lopa Fusor: Explain why hemorrhage, anemia, COPD, or any combination of these three might result in lactic acidosis. Back to question 27.
28. Answer: C. Chapter 22, Objective 22: Concerning Otto Shape, compare his metabolism when walking slowly with sprinting. Consider the following: Total ATP used by muscle per second: Rate of ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation: The rate of pyruvate oxidized by pyruvate dehydrogenase and the TCA cycle. Why?: The rate of glycolysis. Why?: The rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Why? Back to question 28.
29. Answer: C. Chapter 22, Objective 2, 3, 4, and 6: What is the first enzyme in glycolysis in muscle? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible? What is the isozyme of this enzyme in liver? What is the enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to fructose-6-phosphate in glycolysis in liver? What reaction is catalyzed by this enzyme? Is the reaction reversible? What is the enzyme that produces NADH from a triose phosphate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? What is the enzyme that produces ATP from phosphoenolpyruvate in the glycolytic pathway? What reaction does this enzyme catalyze? Is the reaction reversible? Back to question 29.