Objectives:

1. Be able to draw a cartoon demonstrating oxidative phosphorylation. Include NADH, complexes I, II, III and IV, CoQ, cytochrome c, and ATP synthase. Demonstrate the sites for the pumping of protons and the direction of movement. Indicate the excess protons on one side of the membrane. Draw equations showing the synthesis of H2O and ATP.
2. Why does the movement of protons produce ATP?
3. Where is complex II found? What reaction of the TCA cycle does it catalyze? How much ATP is produced when 2 electrons of succinate are passed through the chain to O2? Which complexes couple proton pumping and succinate oxidation?
4. What is the function of an electron in the electron transport chain?
5. What is a cytochrome?
6. Explain how iron deficiency anemia affects oxygen transport in the blood and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.
7. What reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome oxidase?
8. Be able to state the chemiosmotic theory!
9. How many ATPs are synthesized by ATP synthase for each NADH oxidized by the electron transport chain? How many for FAD(2H)?
10. Is oxidative phosphorylation a reversible reaction? Why?
11. What portion of the ETC is inhibited by CN-? What is the effect of cyanide inhibition upon proton pumping and ATP synthesis?
12. Why does an impairment of the electron transport chain result in lactic acidosis?
13. How does shivering generate heat?
14. Be able to go through the series of events whereby increases ATP utilization is coupled to increased O2 utilization.
15. Be able to go through the series of events whereby pyruvate dehydrogenase is activated by increased ATP utilization.
16. Understand how a chemical uncoupler works. What happens to heat production, proton pumping, ATP synthesis, and NADH utilization following uncoupling?
17. What is the difference between an inhibitor of electron transport and an uncoupler of electron transport with respect to NADH utilization, proton pumping, and ATP synthase?

18. Give an example of both a symport and an antiport that functions in the mitochondrial membrane.
19. Concerning Cora Nari: She had a heart attack. Why was nasal oxygen administered? Why was her blood pressure lowered? What might have been the effect on ATP production if nitroprusside had been continued for several days?
20. Concerning Cora Nari: What is TPA and how does it dissolve blood clots?
21. Concerning Cora Nari: How did the change in the ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP affect anaerobic glycolysis? How did this affect the pH?
22. Concerning X.S.Teefore, Explain how the affect of excess thyroid hormone on oxidative phosphorylation could explain increased appetite and sweating?

Keywords:

adenine nucleotide translocase, ADP, anaerobic glycolysis, antiport, ATP, ATP synthase, chelated, chemical uncouplers, chemiosmotic theory, CN-, complexes I, complex II, complex III, complex IV, CoQ, cotransport, coupled, creatine kinase, cyanide, cytochrome b-c1 complex, cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase, cytochromes, dinitrophenol, electrochemical gradient, electrochemical potential, electron transport chain, ETC, FAD(2H), FAD, ferric ion, ferrous ion, fibrin, food, delta-G, H+, H2O, heat, heme, hyperthyroidism, iron, lactate, matrix, NADH, NADH/NAD+, NADH dehydrogenase, nitroprusside, O2, oxidative phosphorylation, Pi, plasmin, plasminogen, protein, proton pumping, proton ionophores, protoporphyrin IX, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate transporter, succinate dehydrogenase, symport, T3, T4, TCA cycle, tissue plasminogen activator, protease, translocase, transporter, uncoupler, uncoupling, work.

Assignments:

Understand the meaning of the key words in the context of Chapter 21.

Examine Questions (Q:)and Answers(A:) in Chapter 21.

Work Review Questions 1, 3, and 5 but not 2 and 4 at the end of the Chapter 21.

Work the Practice Questions for Chapter 21 Objectives

Other Help:

No Other Help for Chapter 21.