Objectives:

1. Summarize the ATP-ADP cycle including the types of fuels used and the work accomplished.
2. In words, what is ΔG?
3. What is a high energy bond? Given the structure of ATP, identify the high energy bonds.
4. Understand the difference between ΔG and ΔG0!?
5. Be able to explain how the free energy of ATP can be used to contract a muscle.
6. Be able to explain how the free energy in ATP can be used by the Na+, K+-ATPase to pump sodium and potassium ions through a cell membrane. (See Figure 10.10 in your textbook.)
7. Be able to explain how the free energy in ATP can be used to synthesize glucose-6-phosphate from glucose and phosphate even though this reaction is endergonic.
8. Given two equations with the ΔG0! for each reaction, be able to add or subtract an equation and determine if the reaction is spontaneous.
9. Given the equation at the bottom of Table 19.2, be able to explain why ΔG can be positive while ΔG0! is negative and visa versa.
10. What is the function of the nucleoside monophosphate kinases and of nucleoside diphosphate kinase? Is it possible to have a high ratio of ATP to ADP and not have a high ratio of GTP to GDP?
11. Be able to write the reaction for adenylate kinase.
12. In addition to the nucleoside phosphates, be able to identify 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate, Phosphoenolpyruvate, Creatine phosphate, and Acetyl CoA as high energy compounds.
13. Be able to describe how the hydrocarbons in our diet are converted to CO2, H20, and ATP. Include the reduction and oxidation of coenzymes and the creation and use of proton gradients in your explanation.
14. What is oxidative phosphorylation?
15. Describe three general ways that oxidation or reduction occurs in the body.
16. How do NAD+, FAD, and FMN function?
17. What is an anaerobic pathway? What is anaerobic glycolysis?
18. What kind of reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome oxidase? What is oxidized and what is reduced?

19. What kind of reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase? What is oxidized and what is reduced? What do monooxygenases, hydroxylases, and mixed function oxygenase oxidases have in common?
20. Assume a sudden loss of oxygen supply to a cell. Give a simple scenario (sequence of events) that might lead to cell death (necrosis) and release of enzymes. Use the terms hypoxia, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP concentration, active transport, intracellular Ca2+, swelling, permeability, and creatine kinase.
21. Concerning Otto Shape, what are two general methods he could use to vary his daily fat storage?
22. Concerning Otto Shape, if his diet contained the same number of grams but he ate carbohydrates instead of alcohol and fat, would his weight change? Why?
23. Concerning X.S. Teefore who has hyperthyroidism, what is the major hormone secreted from his thyroid gland? What is the major hormone acting in target cells? What is the general effect of this hormone on the cells of the body?
24. Concerning X.S. Teefore who has hyperthyroidism. Assume that he is eating at least the same amount of food as before he developed the disease, why is he loosing weight and why is he sweating?

Keywords:

acetyl CoA, active transport, adenylate kinase, anaerobic glycolysis, ATP-ADP cycle, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, Ca2+, creatine kinase, creatine phosphate, FAD, FADH2, FMN, free energy, hydride ion, hydrogen atom, hydroxylase, hyperthyroidism, mixed function oxidase, monooxygenase, NAD+, NADH, necrosis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, nucleoside monophosphate kinases, oxygenase, permeability, phosphoenolpyruvate products; substrates.

Assignments:

Skip section.V-A-2. Reduction Potentials on page 353.

Understand the meaning of the key words in the context of Chapter 19.

Examine Questions (Q:) and Answers (A:) in Chapter 19 EXCEPT for the Q on the bottom of page 340. This Q is explained below under "Other Help" for Objective 9.

Work Review Questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 but not 2 at the end of the Chapter 19.

Work the Practice Questions for Chapter 19 Objectives

Other Help:

Free Energy from ATP for Biosynthesis, Objective 7

Free Energy of a Pathway, Objective 8

Objective 9: Why ΔG can be positive while ΔG0! is negative and visa versa.

Nucleoside monophosphate kinases and nucleoside diphosphate kinase, Objective 10