Questions:

1. The ATP-ADP cycle includes all of the following except
  1. The conversion of the suns energy to ATP
  2. The oxidation of lipids, carbohydrates, and protein to produce CO2, H2O, ATP and heat
  3. The use of ATP to contract muscle
  4. The use of ATP for the active transport of ions
  5. The use of ATP for the synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, and protein
2. ΔG is the
  1. Free energy in the substrates of a reaction
  2. Free energy in the products of a reaction
  3. Free energy of the products minus the free energy of the reactants
  4. Energy of the products that was not available to do work minus the energy of the substrates that was not available to do work
  5. Change in heat content between the reactants and products
3. Concerning high energy bonds, which of the following statements is NOT correct? A high energy bond is a bond
  1. With a ΔG of hydrolysis between a minus 7 kcal/mole and a minus infinity kcal/mole
  2. With a ΔG of hydrolysis between a minus 1 kcal/mole and a minus 7 kcal/mole
  3. Like the phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP
  4. Like the phosphoanhydride bond of ADP
  5. Like the phosphoanhydride bonds of GTP
4. The ΔG and ΔG0! Both refer to the free energy change in a steady state reaction.  Steady state means that the concentrations of substrates and products are fixed or constant.  All of the following statements about ΔG and ΔG0! Are true EXCEPT
  1. ΔG refers to a specific reaction with fixed (constant) concentrations of substrate and products
  2. ΔG0! refers to a reaction at pH = 7 and 25 degrees centigrade
  3. ΔG0! refers to a reaction with the concentrations of substrates and products, except hydrogen ion, fixed at one molar concentrations
  4. ΔG and ΔG0! can both have positive or negative values
  5. ΔG0! for a specific reactions can have many values
5. When the Ca++ concentration in a striated muscle cell rises, the myosin and actin fibers slide past one another during the contractile process.  The free energy in the high energy bonds of ATP is used to perform this work.  All of the following are true EXCEPT

  1. To dissociate from the actin filament, the myosin head must combine with ATP
  2. To reassociate with the actin filament, the myosin head must hydrolyze one high energy bond in ATP
  3. Some of the free energy from the high energy bond is used to pull the myosin fiber a little way along the actin fiber
  4. Some of the free energy from the high energy bond is dissipated as heat
  5. The myosin head must not change conformation or change its free energy content during muscle contraction
6. The Na+, K+-ATPase is in all cell membranes and accounts for a substantial amount of our resting energy expenditure.  All of the following are true except
  1. The free energy in a high energy bond of ATP is the driving force for the reaction
  2. Sodium ions are pumped into the cell and potassium ions are pumped out of the cell
  3. The process requires that ATP react with the Na+, K+-ATPase
  4. The process requires that the Na+, K+-ATPase change its conformation several times
  5. Some of the free energy in ATP was converted to heat during the process
7. Consider the following reactions:

(1)  Glucose + Pi = Glucose-6-P + H2O                   ΔG0'  = +3.3 kcal/mole

(2)  ATP + H20 = ADP + Pi                                   ΔG0'  = -7.3 kcal/mole

(3)  Glucose + ATP = glucose 6-P + ADP                ΔG0'  = - 4.0 kcal/mole

All of the following would be true EXCEPT

  1. Without ATP, reaction 1 would not occur in the forward direction even if you added an enzyme to catalyze the reaction
  2. Without ATP, reaction 1 would not occur in the forward direction because it is exergonic
  3. Reaction 3 would occur in the forward direction if hexokinase were added
  4. The free energy in an acid anhydride bond of ATP would be used to drive reaction 3
  5. For reaction 3 to occur, the enzyme requires that reactions 1 and 2 occur simultaneously
8. Assume standard biological conditions and that all the enzymes are present to catalyze the reactions.  The following are sequential enzyme reactions in a pathway:

A + B = C + D              ΔGo’=  -4 kcal/mole

D + E = G + F              ΔGo’=  +9 kcal/mole

F + H = I + J              ΔGo’=  -4 kcal/mole

 Which of the following will occur?

  1. A + B will be converted to C + D
  2. G + F will be converted to D + E
  3. D + E will be converted to G + F
  4. F+ H will be converted to I + J
  5. None of the above
9. The equation relating ΔG to ΔG0’ and the concentration of reactants and products follows:

 ΔG = ΔG0’ + 2.3 RT Log {[C]c [D]d}/{[A]a [B]b}

 Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  1. For a specific reaction, like the hydrolysis of ATP, ΔG0’is a constant
  2. Whether ΔG is positive or negative depends upon the particular reaction
  3. Whether ΔG is positive or negative depends upon the concentration of reactants and products
  4. Even if ΔG0’is negative, ΔG can be positive if the products can be raised to a high concentration
  5. Even if ΔG0’is positive, ΔG can be negative if the products can be raised to a high concentration
10. Which of the following is NOT true?
  1. ATP + UMP ↔ UDP + ADP is catalyzed by a nucleoside  monophosphokinase
  2. ATP + GDP ↔ GTP + ADP is catalyzed by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  3. If the ratio of ATP/ADP is high, the ratio of GTP/GDP is high
  4. ADP + Pi ↔ ATP + H2O is catalyzed by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  5. ATP + CDP ↔ CTP + ADP is catalyzed by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase
11. Which of the following reactions is not catalyzed by adenylate kinase (myokinase)?

  1. ADP + Pi ↔ ATP
  2. ADP + ADP ↔ AMP + ATP
  3. 2ADP ↔ AMP + ATP
  4. AMP + ATP ↔ 2ADP
  5. AMP + ATP ↔ ADP + ADP
12. Which of the following compounds does NOT contain a high energy bond?
  1. 1,3- Bisphosphoglycerate
  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate
  3. Creatine phosphate
  4. AMP
  5. Acetyl CoA
13. The free energy in the high energy bonds of ATP is obtained by the oxidation of fuels (carbohydrates, fats, proteins).  Which of the following is NOT part of this process?

  1. The conversion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins into acetyl CoA and the oxidation of Acetyl CoA in the TCA cycle
  2. The reduction of NAD+ and FAD by the TCA cycle
  3. The oxidation of NADH and FADH2 by the electron transport chain
  4. The pumping of hydrogen ions into the mitochondria from the cytoplasm using the energy of the electron transport chain
  5. The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi by ATP synthase using the energy in the proton gradient
14. Oxidative phosphorylation is
  1. The generation of ATP from ADP and Pi in reactions that require O2
  2. The production of ATP in glycolysis
  3. The production of GTP by the TCA cycle
  4. The production of ATP from ADP in the myokinase reaction (nucleoside diphosphate kinase reaction)
  5. The oxidation of inorganic phosphate groups
15. All of the following statements about oxidation reduction reactions are true EXCEPT

  1. When oxygen is added to a molecule, the molecule is oxidized
  2. When hydrogen is added to a molecule the molecule is reduced
  3. In the reaction CH3CH2OH + NAD+ = CH3CHO + NADH + H+, CH3CH2OH is oxidized
  4. In the reaction CH3CH2OH + NAD+ = CH3CHO + NADH + H+, NAD+ is oxidized
  5. In the electron transport chain, when Fe 2+ is converted to Fe3+, Fe 2+ is oxidized
16. Which of the following statements is FALSE
  1. NAD+, FAD, and FMN function as cofactors in oxidoreductase reactions
  2. NAD+ can accept a hydride ion and become NADH
  3. FAD can accept 2 hydrogen atoms and become FADH2
  4. NADH can accept electrons from FADH2
  5. When NADH is oxidized, it becomes NAD+
17. All of the following statements about Anaerobic Glycolysis are true EXCEPT
  1. The pathway converts glucose to lactate
  2. The pathway is called anaerobic because no oxygen is consumed
  3. The pathway produces ATP and this is called substrate level phosphorylation
  4. Substrate level phosphorylation is a synonym for oxidative phosphorylation
  5. The NADH made in one part of the pathway is used up in another part of the pathway
18. All of the following are true statements concerning cytochrome oxidase EXCEPT
  1. This is the last enzyme (cytochrome) in the electron transport chain to accept an electron
  2. The electrons were donated to the electron transport chain by NADH or FADH2
  3. This enzyme uses H+ and O2 as substrates
  4. This enzyme produces H2O2 as a product
  5. Oxygen is reduced in by the cytochrome oxidase reaction
19. If the drug RH is used as a substrate by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, which of the following is not TRUE?
  1. RH will become ROH
  2. H2O will be produced
  3. NADPH or its equivalent will be used as a reducing agent
  4. RH and NADPH will both be oxidized
  5. ROOR will be the final product released from the active site
20. If a cell were subjected to severe hypoxia, all of the following might be reasonable outcomes, EXCEPT
  1. Without oxygen, the rate of ATP production would decrease dramatically
  2. The ATP concentration would drop
  3. Ion pumps like Na+, K+-ATPase could not function without ATP
  4. Too many ions would leave the cell and the cell would begin to swell
  5. Holes would form in the cell membrane and enzymes would leak out
21. Choose the best answer.  The best way for your patient Otto Shape to lose weight would be
  1. To switch to a high carbohydrate diet
  2. To switch to a high protein diet
  3. To ingest less calories
  4. To increase his exercise
  5. To ingest less calories and increase his exercise
22. If you consumed 100 grams of the following compounds, which would contain the most calories?
  1. Fatty acids
  2. Amino acids
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Ethyl alcohol
23. You have a patient with hyperthyroidism.  You are sure of all of the following EXCEPT
  1. Her thyroid gland is releasing too much T4
  2. Too much T3 is reacting with receptors in most of the cells of her body
  3. Many enzymes are being synthesized at a greater than normal rate
  4. Many catabolic and anabolic processes are being accelerated
  5. The Na+,K+-ATPase is inhibited by bound T3
24. Your patient has hyperthyroidism.  All of the following would be true EXCEPT
  1. Your patient would be sweating because of excess heat production
  2. An increase in the activity of any pathway would produce more heat
  3. Many of this patients metabolic pathways have increased activity
  4. Energy stores of fat may be used to provided the extra energy needed
  5. Muscle protein cannot be used for energy
25. Which of the following statements about the ΔG is FALSE? ΔG is
  1. Not as accurate as the ΔGo! for measuring the tendency of cellular reactions to occur
  2. The change in free energy for a reaction
  3. The amount of energy available to do work in the reaction
  4. The ΔG of the products minus the ΔG of the substrates
  5. A measure of the tendency of the reaction to occur
26. All of the following are true EXCEPT. ΔG can be determined
  1. Only under standard conditions
  2. when each substrate and each product is at a different concentration as long as that concentration stays constant during the reaction
  3. for any for any concentration of substrates and products as long as that concentration stays constant during the reaction
  4. using the actual biological concentration of metabolites
  5. for normal body temperature of 37 degrees
27. The reaction NADPH + H+ + RH + O2 = NADP+ + ROH + H2O is catalyzed by all of the following EXCEPT
  1. An oxidase
  2. A mixed function oxidase
  3. A hydroxylase
  4. A monooxygenase
  5. A cytochrome P450 enzyme

Answers:

1. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 1: Summarize the ATP-ADP cycle including the types of fuels used and the work accomplished. Back to question 1.
2. Answer: C. Chapter 19, Objective 2: In words, what is ΔG? Back to question 2.
3. Answer: B. Chapter 19, Objective 3: What is a high energy bond? Given the structure of ATP, identify the high energy bonds. Back to question 3.
4. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 4: Understand the difference between ΔG and ΔG0!? Back to question 4.
5. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 5: Be able to explain how the free energy of ATP can be used to contract a muscle. Back to question 5.
6. Answer: B. Chapter 19, Objective 6: Be able to explain how the free energy in ATP can be used by the Na+, K+-ATPase to pump sodium and potassium ions through a cell membrane. (See figure 10.10) Back to question 6.
7. Answer: B. Chapter 19, Objective 7: Be able to explain how the free energy in ATP can be used to synthesize glucose-6-phosphate from glucose and phosphate even though this reaction is endergonic. Back to question 7.
8. Answer: B. Chapter 19, Objective 8: Given two equations with the ΔG0! for each reaction, be able to add or subtract an equation and determine if the reaction as spontaneous. Back to question 8.
9. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 9: Given the equation at the bottom of Table 19.2, be able to explain why ΔG can be positive while ΔG0! is negative and visa versa. Back to question 9.
10. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 10: What is the function of nucleoside monophosphokinases and nucleoside diphosphate kinase? Is it possible to have a high ratio of ATP to ADP and not have a high ratio of GTP to GDP? Back to question 10.
11. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 11: Be able to write the reaction for adenylate kinase. Back to question 11.
12. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 12: In addition to the nucleoside phosphates, be able to identify 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate, Phosphoenolpyruvate, Creatine phosphate, and Acetyl CoA as high energy compounds. Back to question 12.
13. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 13: Be able to describe how the hydrocarbons in our diet are converted to CO2, H20, and ATP. Include the reduction and oxidation of coenzymes and the creation and use of proton gradients in your explanation. Back to question 13.
14. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 14: What is oxidative phosphorylation? Back to question 14.
15. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 15: Describe three general ways that oxidation or reduction occurs in the body. Back to question 15.
16. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 16: How do NAD+, FAD, and FMN function? Back to question 16.
17. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 17: What is an anaerobic pathway? What is anaerobic glycolysis? Back to question 17.
18. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objective 18: What kind of reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome oxidase? What is oxidized and what is reduced? Back to question 18.
19. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 19: What kind of reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase? What is oxidized and what is reduced? What do monooxygenases, hydroxylases, and mixed function oxygenase oxidases have in common? Back to question 19.
20. Answer: D. Chapter 19, Objectives 20: Assume a sudden loss of oxygen supply to a cell. Give a simple scenario (sequence of events) that might lead to cell death (necrosis) and release of enzymes. Use the terms hypoxia, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP concentration, active transport, intracellular Ca2+, swelling, permeability, and creatine kinase. Back to question 20.
21. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objectives 21: Concerning Otto Shape, what are two general methods he could use to vary his daily fat storage? Back to question 21.
22. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 22: Concerning Otto Shape, if his diet contained the same number of grams but he ate carbohydrates instead of alcohol and fat, would his weight change? Why? Back to question 22.
23. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 23: Concerning X.S. Teefore who has hyperthyroidism, what is the major hormone secreted from his thyroid gland? What is the major hormone acting in target cells? What is the general effect of this hormone on the cells of the body? Back to question 23.
24. Answer: E. Chapter 19, Objective 24: Concerning X.S. Teefore who has hyperthyroidism. Assume that he is eating at least the same amount of food as before he developed the disease, why is he loosing weight and why is he sweating? Back to question 24.
25. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 2: In words, what is ΔG? Back to question 25.
26. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 4: Understand the difference between ΔG and ΔG0!? Back to question 26.
27. Answer: A. Chapter 19, Objective 19: What kind of reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase? What is oxidized and what is reduced? What do monooxygenases, hydroxylases, and mixed function oxygenase oxidases have in common? Back to question 27.