General Chemistry II

Chemistry 111, Sections A and C

University of New England

Spring 2006

 

Instructor: Dr. J. Mullin

Office/lab: Alfond 339/340;  Phone: 602-2538; e-mail: jmullin@une.edu (don’t use pipeline)

 

Office Hours: A schedule will be posted on the Alfond 339 lab door. You are welcome to stop in almost anytime; refer to the posted schedule to see when i am most likely to be available. If you can't find me when you are free, call, send e-mail, or see me before or after class to set up an appointment. Do not hesitate to ask questions or seek help!  If you do not ask questions, I will assume you understand all of the material and will get 100% on all exams and quizzes!

 

Text: Chemistry: The Science in Context, by Gilbert, Kirss, & Davies, W. W. Norton, 2004 (ISBN 0-393-97531-2)

 

Study Guide and Solutions Manual:  To accompany Gilbert. Optional; some are available in the bookstore.

 

Lab Manual: The Lab Manual will be provided; the production costs are included in your laboratory fee.

 

Course Objectives: Chemistry 111 is a study of several important topics related to the behavior of chemical and physical systems. The material in this course serves as a foundation for all subsequent courses in chemistry, as well as for many disciplines that rely on chemistry (e.g., biology, environmental science, oceanography, medicine, and biochemistry). This course should be of interest even to those not intending to pursue study in the sciences, because an understanding of the principles discussed will make you better able to make informed decisions in our increasingly complex world. This course will assume that you have a solid understanding of the principles and concepts introduced in CHE 110, the successful completion of which is a prerequisite for this course. You probably will find the material more interesting, more cohesive, and more challenging than the material in CHE 110. You should find that it flows in a very logical progression, as we explore the factors that describe and control chemical reactions.

                By the end of this course, you should have gained an understanding of the principles and applications of material in four main subject areas: 1) Thermodynamics, the study of energy relationships in systems, which tells us whether or not chemical reactions are likely to occur spontaneously when substances are mixed, 2) Chemical Kinetics, the study of the rates at which chemical reactions proceed, 3) Chemical Equilibrium, including solubility and acid/base equilibria, which will provide a foundation for understanding the complex dynamic behavior of natural systems, and 4) Electrochemistry, the study of electron-transfer processes and electrochemical cells. We also may explore some of the physical properties of solutions.

                In order to succeed in this course, you must keep up with the material daily by completing reading assignments and problem sets in a timely fashion. If you get behind early in the semester, things will get much worse very quickly, as the material builds on what has come before it. Unfortunately, we generally will not have time to review in class, so if you feel deficient or rusty in any area of CHE 110, you ought to review the appropriate sections of Gilber and/or your CHE 110 notes, and seek help outside of class. See your instructor if you have questions or would like to review CHE 110 material. Don't hesitate to ask questions!

 

Class Attendance Policy:  Although attendance records will be kept for lecture and lab, lecture attendance will not be directly figured into your grade, unless there are excessive absences (>3 unexcused absences).  Note especially that "make‑up" exams and quizzes are not given, so do not miss an exam or quiz unless you can provide documented evidence of illness or other serious problem. See the instructor in advance if you anticipate a schedule problem.  Quizzes may not be made up under any circumstances.  If documented evidence of illness, etc., is presented, the missed quiz score may be dropped from your total point collection calculation.

 

Lab Attendance Policy:  Because lab is an integral part of the course, you are encouraged not to miss any lab sessions. Each experiment missed will lower your final course grade because of the points you will have missed. Two or more missed labs will result in automatic failure in the course if they are not made up.  If you miss your regularly scheduled lab period, you should see your lab instructor immediately, so you can make arrangements to complete the experiment in another lab section, before the chemicals and equipment are removed from the lab. Make every effort to complete a missed experiment within 1 week of when it was scheduled; otherwise reagents and equipment may not be available.

 

 

Things to get: (In addition to the text and lab manual)

 

1. Approved Safety Goggles (required). They must be worn at all times when anyone is working in the lab.

2.  Notebook (3-ring) for Lab Manual.

3. Calculator.

 

Due dates for assignments and lab reports: Due dates for all assignments will be announced when the assignments are given. Most lab reports will be due before leaving the lab on the day of the experiment, unless you are informed otherwise by your lab instructor. There will be a 10% per week late fee on all work (except homework problem sets, which will not be accepted after their due dates).  Absolutely no work will be accepted after 5:00 pm on the last day of classes. Because of the large number of students, very few graded assignments will be likely in the lecture portion of the course.

 

Laboratory:  See the separate schedule for the sequence of lab experiments. This sequence will follow the lecture as closely as possible, but, unfortunately, it is not possible to keep lab and lecture completely coordinated. You are expected to read each experiment carefully, as well as any associated handouts and text references BEFORE coming to lab, so you are prepared to work when the lab opens.  This is especially important in cases where an experiment is to be done before the relevant material is covered in class. Some experiments are purposely scheduled ahead of the lecture material; they are intended as “discovery-based” learning experiences. If you have questions about an experiment, see your course or lab instructor well before the lab starts.

 

Exams & Quizzes:  Exams are designed to allow you to demonstrate your understanding of, and ability to synthesize and use, the material covered.  You will be expected to apply your knowledge to problems that may not be exactly like ones you have seen in class or on homework sets.  In other words, memorization of example problem solutions is insufficient for success in this course; you must be able to think critically and apply your knowledge in order to solve problems. Weekly quizzes (Fridays) are designed to encourage you to keep up with the material and provide frequent feedback on your level of mastery of the material, but they are not meant to simulate exam questions. The Final Exam will be an American Chemical Society Standardized exam, comprehensive over the full year of General Chemistry.

 

Abbreviated CHE 110 Outline: This brief outline is included as a guide for you if you need to review. You should understand the concepts in the areas listed below. As noted above, if you feel deficient, see the instructor for review help.

 

                                General Topic Area                                                                                            Chapter in Gilbert

 

I. Introductory Material: Matter & Measurement                                                                                           1

II. Components of Matter: Atoms, Compounds, Formulas, and Nomenclature                                         2,3

III. Composition Stoichiometry, Chemical Reactions, & Reaction Stoichiometry                                     4

IV. Major Types of Chemical Reactions; Chemistry in Aqueous Solutions                                              5

V. Atomic Structure; Electron Configurations and Chemical Periodicity                                                    3

VI. Chemical Bonding; molecular structure/geometry (excluding molecular orbital theory)                    6, 7

VIII. Properties of Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory                                                                        8

IX. Intermolecular Forces and Properties of Liquids                                                                                      9

 

Evaluation:  TENTATIVE grade distribution (some values are approximate):

 

                                Exams (3 @ 100 pts each)                                                   300

                                Quizzes (Fridays; 11 @ 20 pts each)                                 200  (lowest quiz score dropped)

                                Lab: reports, quizzes, etc                                                    200

                                Other Assignments (to be announced)                            ???

                                Final Exam                                                                             100

Total (approx)                                                                       800

 

Final grades will be determined by the total number of points accumulated divided by the total possible number of points. Course grade assignment is based on the standard scale: 90-100% = A-/A, 80-89% = B-/B/B+, and so on. While some slight modification of scale break points is possible, grades in general will not be scaled or “curved.” You may estimate your course standing at any point in the semester by computing your own percentage and comparing with those norms.

 

A Word (or two) About Math Proficiency: In addition to having an understanding of the principles discussed in CHE 110, you should be adept at performing basic mathematical operations. You will be expected to carry out basic algebraic operations including those involving natural and common logarithms. If you are uneasy about math, do something about it NOW, before it's too late. Inability to do math will make it more difficult for you to master the chemistry content in the course. This course involves considerably more mathematical problem-solving than did CHE 110.

 

Homework Problems: Homework assignments (readings and problems) will be distributed on a regular basis (reading assignments also are included in the outline which follows). It is your responsibility to keep up with the work as it is covered in class and as suggested on the course outline. Although problem assignments generally will not be collected and graded (there are too many students), it is to your advantage to work diligently on all problem sets in a timely fashion. The best way to learn the material and prepare for tests is to work as many problems as possible and seek to understand the principles behind the problems, not merely the mechanics of the problem-solving process. If you do not truly understand the material, you will be unable to solve problems that are not exactly like the ones in the assignments. You will be expected to think in this course, not simply memorize material. Work on the assignments regularly and as the material is presented in class; do not wait until two days before a test or quiz to work out 4 weeks' worth of problems. Seek help from the instructor, friends, classmates, or the LAC tutors if you have difficulty working the problems or understanding the material. Any assignments designated to be handed in will be given due‑dates when assigned, and will not be accepted after the due date.

 

Exam and Quiz Schedule: Quizzes will be given at the end of class (~10 minutes) each Friday except weeks in which an exam is given. Exams will be given outside of class time to remove the 50-minute time constraint and allow you to demonstrate more thoroughly your accumulated knowledge and skills. Although designed to be completed in one hour, exams will be scheduled for two hour periods. Exams will start at 6:30 p.m. on the dates indicated below (schedule is tentative!). If you have a schedule conflict with an exam (e.g., work commitment sports game, or other scheduled class), see the instructor in advance to arrange an alternative time. If you are enrolled with the OSSD, you must make exam arrangements with that office and the instructor in advance. Do not skip other classes in order to be present for the scheduled exam times! We can make other arrangements; just see me prior to the exam date!

 

                Exam I:    Wednesday,  February 22.

                                                                Exam II:  Thursday, March. 23.

                                                                Exam III: Thursday, April. 20.

 

                The Final Exam will be held during the Final Exam Week and will be scheduled by the Registrar’s Office. Please do not make post-semester travel plans until you receive your Final Exam schedule. No alternative Final Exam times will be available.

 

Laboratory

 

Lab Grading Procedure: Will be discussed by your lab instructor.

 

Lab Safety Lecture: If you have not attended a lab safety lecture during this academic year (i.e., since September), you must attend one before attending lab. Consult Dan Callahan, ext. 2490, or dcallahan@une.edu.

 

Laboratory Schedule: Be sure to consult this schedule each week so that you prepare for the correct experiment! The experiments may not appear in the Lab Manual in the exact sequence in which they will be performed!

 

Note: You are expected to come to lab prepared to do the day’s experiment. This means that you should carefully read the experimental background and procedure BEFORE getting to lab, including any text references.

 

Note 2: Background information on any experiment can be found in Gilbert. If the lab’s material has not yet been covered in class, it is your responsibility to prepare by reading the appropriate text sections.

 

Note 3:  Pre-Lab quizzes may be expected at the start of each lab period. Material for such quizzes will be drawn from the Lab Manual and text references.

 

Note 4: Anyone leaving the lab untidy will have points be deducted from the lab report score.  Group areas (e.g., balance area or reagent shelf) left messy will result in the deduction of points from the report scores of all students in the offending lab section.

 


Chemistry 111 Course Outline

Spring, 2006

 

NOTE: Sections of the course text containing the relevant information are included in parentheses

 

I. Physical  Properties of Condensed Phases II: Solutions

                                1. The Solution Process; The Role of IMFs in solubility (9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5)

2. Vapor Pressure (9.6)

3. Phase Diagrams of Pure Substances and Solutions (9.7)

                                5. Colligative Properties (5.4)

                                6. Solutions of volatile components; Raoult’s Law (12.1)

 

II.  Thermodynamics:  Can we predict reaction spontaneity?

 

                A. Introduction and Definitions (11.1, 11.2)

                B. Thermochemistry

                                1. Forms of energy; 1st Law of Thermodynamics; etc. (11.4)

                                                a. internal energy; kinetic & potential energy

                                                b. work and heat

                                                c. state functions                

                                2. Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes  (11.5)

                                                a. exothermic vs. endothermic processes

                                3.  Heat Capacity, Specific Heat, and Heating/cooling Curves (11.6)

                                                a.  heat capacity

                                                b. heats of fusion and vaporization

                                4. Estimating Enthalpy Changes using Average Bond Energies (11.7)

                                5. Calorimetry (11.8)

                                                a. constant volume calorimetry

                                                b. constant pressure calorimetry

                                4.  Thermochemical Equations (11.9)

                                                a.  Standard Enthalpies of Formation; calculating DHorctn

                                5. Fuel Values (11.10)

                                6.  Hess's Law (11.11)

                                7. Enthalpies of Solution (13.1)

 

                C. Thermodynamics of Chemical Systems

                                1. Spontaneous Processes; Entropy; the Second Law of Thermodynamics (13.2)

                                2. Entropy of Reaction (13.3)

                                3. Gibbs Free Energy and reaction spontaneity (13.4)

 

III. Chemical Kinetics:  How fast will spontaneous reactions proceed?

 

                A. Rates of reactions and factors that affect rate (14.2)

                B. Rate Laws; reaction order (14.3)

                C. Time vs. Concentration: The Integrated Rate Equations (14.3)

                E. Activation energy and temperature dependence of rate (14.5)

                F. Reaction mechanisms (14.4)

                F. Transition State Theory (14.4)

                G. Catalysts (14.6)

 

IV. General Aspects of Chemical Equilibrium: Change and Constancy in Dynamic Systems

 

                A. Dynamic equilibrium; reaction reversibility (15.1)

B. Reaction Quotients and the Equilibrium Constant (15.2)

                C. Heterogeneous Equilibria; KC and KP (15.3; 15.9)

                D. LeChatlier's Principle (15.5)

                E. Equilibrium and Thermodynamics (15.4)

                                1.  relation between  ΔGo and the equilibrium constant

                F. The effect of catalysts on equilibrium (15.6)

                G. Calculations & applications involving equilibrium constants (15.7)

                H. The Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium (15.8)

 

V. Solubility Equilibria; Ksp (16.9)

                                1. unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions

                                2. determining solubility from Ksp values

                                3. common ion effect

                                4. predicting formation of a precipitate

 

VI. Acid/Base Equilibria

 

                A. Acids and bases: introduction and review (16.1; 16.2)

                B. Ionization of water (16.4)

                                1. pH scale

                C. Strong and weak acids and bases (16.2; 16.3)

                                1. definitions

                                2. pKa and pKb

                                3. conjugate acid/base pairs

                                4. finding solution pH from total acid or base concentration

                                5. factors affecting acid/base behavior

                D. Buffers (16.6)

                E. Diprotic and polyprotic acids and bases

                F. Hydrolysis & Salts (16.5)

                G. Acid ‑ Base titrations (16.7)

 

VII. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry: Electron Transfer in Chemical Systems

                A. Oxidation ‑ Reduction reactions (5.5)

                                1. Intro.; Definitions (review; 5.5; 21.1)

                                2. oxidation numbers (review; 5.5)

                                3. balancing redox reactions by ion‑electron (half-reaction) method (5.5)

                B. Electrochemical Cells I: Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells (17.1 - 17.5)

                                1. Cell potentials; standard reduction potentials; standard cell potentials

                                2. Effect of concentration on Ecell; the Nernst Equation (17.5)

C. Spontaneity of redox reactions; Cell potentials and Thermodynamics (17.2)

F. Examples of Important Galvanic Cells: Batteries and Corrosion (17.3; read on your own)

                H. Electrochemical Cells II: Electrolytic cells (17.7)